New Technology of Breeding and Cultivation of Chunlan

Orchid is one of China's traditional famous flowers. China has a long history of cultivation of orchids and has a wide variety of species. Many localities have cultivated and propagated rare orchid species through industrialization and achieved very good results.

1 The characteristics of orchids. The stems of orchids have unique pseudobulbs that can store a lot of moisture and require good air permeability when planting. The structure of the flower is complex and consists of bracts, petals, lips, and columns. In particular, the column is composed of males and females, and the pollen is covered. Natural pollination is more difficult. China's Chunlan is the oldest species of orchid cultivated in China. Its leaves are clustered, with 4 to 6 pieces per plant, narrow and long bands, and obvious veins. Each flower pedicel 1 flower, a small number of 2. There are many varieties of Chunlan, which are mainly produced in Jiangsu and Zhejiang. According to the petal form, the main famous products are: Dafugui, Songmei, Zhang Husu, Yingdie, Shenlan, and tabby.

2 Orchid Room. The orchid room is the place for cultivating orchids. Because orchids require high temperature and humidity, orchids need to regulate temperature, humidity, and ventilation. Where conditions permit, a storage tank or gravel is installed on the ground to ensure the humidity of the indoor floor. Place the blue pot on a blue shelf about 60 centimeters from the ground so that it is well ventilated and the fork prevents insects from climbing up from the bottom of the pot. Approximately 60 cm of walkways are reserved between the blue and blue shelves for convenient management. Lights are placed above the blue shelf and increase the illuminance when there is not enough light in the shade, rain and fog. The top of the blue room is equipped with a double-layer shade net to block the sunlight and prevent the temperature from rising. A curtain is set on one side of the wall. In the hot summer season, the water curtain is turned on to reduce the room temperature. Install fans to enhance ventilation, especially during the rainy season, control air humidity, which is conducive to disease prevention and control. In addition, there are heating devices that can survive winters at low temperatures and meet the growing requirements of orchids.

3 pots and plant material. The root of the orchid is a fleshy root, and a large amount of water is stored in the root. This kind of root is characterized by a fear of water accumulation, hibernation, and drought resistance. When selecting orchids, it is necessary to facilitate the ventilation, ventilation, and drainage of the plant material, and consider beauty and other factors. Common pots include plastic pots, porcelain pots, plain pots, zisha pots and so on. Plastic basins are light and water-retaining, but do not absorb water. Breathability and heat dissipation are poor. Suspension basin is good in air permeability and moderate in price, but its appearance is rough. The zirconia basin has good air permeability and attractive appearance, and can be selected according to needs. In recent years, fine and high plant pots have been used in most cases. This type of pots can keep the orchid roots with good air permeability, which is conducive to the growth of orchid roots. The same blue room is the best choice for the same specification of the blue pot, so that the basic permeability of the same, easy to grasp the humidity. Traditionally, the use of non-grainy planting materials for blues is likely to result in compaction, water accumulation, and decay of orchids, which increases management difficulty. In order to increase ventilation and avoid root rot, advanced mixed-matrix culture methods are currently used, with loose air permeability and good moisture retention, which solves the problem of rot-root. The substrates for planting include: base stones, vermiculite, phytoliths, perlite, and eucalyptus, etc., which are mixed as required. Sieving the dust first, then using different sieves to sort out the three kinds of large, medium and small particles, soaked and dried for use.

4 Breeding. After a year or two of cultivation, orchids can germinate many new shoots. When the number of seedlings reaches 6 or 7 seedlings, they can be divided into ramets. Generally, the ramets are used once every two or three years. In spring and autumn, select 6, 7 or more plants, take a pot, gently tap the bottom of the pot, pour out the roots, take care not to injure the new roots, use a brush to brush the old soil on the root, find the pseudobulb Where the gap is relatively large, usually known as "the road", carefully open, use scissors to trim the roots, roots, and then immersed in 40% thiophanate-methyl or chlorothalonil 800 times for 1 hour, then rinse with water, When the roots are white and soft, they can be colonized.

5 Biotechnology propagation. In recent years, seed propagation and terminal bud tissue culture have been used. Due to its unique shape, it is difficult to pollinate naturally, and seed propagation is generally conducted through artificial pollination. Use tweezers to remove the pollen and gently place it on the stigma. After successful pollination, the ovary gradually enlarges and results. Cut the fruit. Wash with distilled water, pour sodium hypochlorite solution to disinfect, cut open the fruit, scrape the seed in distilled water, suck it into a dropper, sow it in the culture medium, conduct aseptic propagation, and germinate within 3 to 4 months.

Conditions can be used for rapid propagation of the top-bud tissue culture to produce a large number of new plants. First, at the roots of the cultivars of the cultivar 2 or 3 years old, 2 to 3 cm of growth buds are cut and rinsed with running water for 20 minutes at a temperature of 22 In the sterile tissue culture room at -25°C, remove the outermost 1 to 2 loquat leaves and soak them in sodium hypochlorite solution for 15 minutes and sterilize them. Then, they were peeled, cut into 2-5 mm shoot tips, inoculated on a prepared medium, moved to a culture site, and the rhizomes were released after 3 to 4 months, and they were continuously propagated, followed by budding and rooting. When the test tube seedlings grow to 5 to 8 cm and there are 2, 3 roots, they can be transplanted. The seedlings were removed from the bottles, the culture medium adhered to the roots was cleaned, and then seeded into a mixture of perlite and vermiculite, and drenched with water. Place in a cool place. Three months after survival, the plants were planted into small pots. The management methods were similar to those of the trifoliate plants.

6 Plant pots. Choose a deep-buried, bottom-hole, large-scale simmering pot or zisha pot planting. Put the box pad into the bottom of the basin, fill with large coarse particles, put the plants into the basin, and bias the old pseudobulb to one side, leaving the new bud position. Spread a good root system, add medium granules, fill the place with fake bulbs, beat the plant pots, make the soil implement, and then cover with small pellets to make the pot surface into a slightly higher center shape. Place in a cool, ventilated place and then water the leaves until the water flows out of the basin.

7 Fertilizer management. Orchids are suitable for growing in environments with high humidity, and generally require air humidity of 70% to 90%, such as air is too dry. The orchids grow poorly, the leaves are small and thin, and they have no luster. Usually, water is used to maintain the humidity, and it is best to use rain water. If tap water is used, it should be stored for one or two days until the chlorine gas is volatilized. water. A pH of about 6 is the best and can be tested with a test strip. However, there should be no water in the roots, and the water should be supplied according to the seasonal changes and the degree of wet and dry cultivation of the planting materials. In summer, the temperature is high and the evaporation is large. Watering once or twice a day in the evening or in the morning keeps the leaves and pelmene moist, and drenches them once a week to make the plant material thoroughly moist. Winter orchids are in a resting state and water every 4 to 5 days at noon. Spring water 2 days, once a day in autumn. In short, master the principle of refraining from dripping and pouring. Fertilization requires thin fertilizers to be applied and the concentration should not be too high, otherwise it will cause fertilizer damage and even cause the death of orchids. The main methods of fertilization include basal fertilizer, root dressing and foliar fertilizer. According to the orchid's vegetative growth and reproductive growth time may be different. The period from April to June is the growth period of sprouts. At this time, the temperature begins to rise. It can be used as a 1000-fold liquid of Shilanyuwang or Huabao No.1 and once every 7-10 days to promote the early growth of roots and the growth of new shoots. After July is the new leaf growth period, Shihuakang triple nutrient solution or Huabao No. 5 1000 times, 7 to 10 days. From September to October, Shihuabao No. 2 and Huabao No. 3 were 1500 times liquid once a day for 10 days to promote reproductive growth. In November, it can be sprayed with 1000 times of Huabao IV and once every 10 days. Can also be applied Magic Fertilizer, good Kang Duo, Kiewo and other special compound fertilizer for orchids. Two to three hours after each fertilization, pour water again. Daily use of long-acting particle fertilizers can be applied directly to the surface of the bowl. In winter, orchids go into dormancy and do not apply fertilizer. Flowering is generally not fertilized.

8 Maintenance Management. Chunlan is suitable for growing in a semi-negative and semi-sun-scattering environment. The suitable temperature is 20 to 30°C and the temperature difference between day and night does not exceed 15°C. Illumination has a greater influence on the growth and development of orchids, and sufficient sunlight can promote photosynthesis of orchids and make the leaves green, delicate and shiny. However, when the light is too weak, the leaves are dark green and dull; and when the light is too strong, the leaves are light green and rough. When the sun is strong in summer. When the temperature exceeds 30°C, the fan is turned on, the water curtain is opened, and the top double sunshade net is covered. Strengthen indoor ventilation, humidification, and cooling. When the winter temperature falls below 5°C, use a warming machine to warm it or move it to the house for cultivation. In rainy season, when planting outdoors, it is necessary to put down a rain plate to protect the orchids. In addition, it was found that there was a burnt head and yellow leaves to be cut in time. Frequently disinfect and clean the site and keep it clean. When the number of plant growth and reproduction of the plant is too many, the planting material is full of old pots or cultivation, is not conducive to root growth, it is necessary to carry out potting, generally every 2 to 3 years, potted once, can be combined with the propagation of the same strains . For some rare varieties, the flowering period should be controlled within 7 to 10 days. That is, the flowers should be removed to ensure that the nutrient supplies the plant growth.

9 Pest control. The prevention and control of pests and diseases are mainly prevention and prevention. When the relative humidity of the air exceeds 90%, the water in the basin is too much, and the weather is hot, it is easy to induce pests and diseases. Common pests and diseases include: anthrax, brown spot, soft rot, white peony disease and other insect pests such as scale insects and white fleas. Should strengthen prevention, control growth conditions, pay attention to cooling ventilation. 1 Anthracnose is the most common disease of orchids, especially in spring and summer, with high humidity, high temperature, and heavy onset. The main damage to the blue leaves, leaf lesions appear, from small to large, from yellow to black, severe rot. When found, immediately cut the diseased leaves with scissors and concentrate on burning. Pay attention to trimming the blade to be obliquely cut on both sides so that the blade shape is pointed, which is more beautiful. 2 Soft rot occurs mostly in April and May. It is carried by rainwater and enters the young bud's heart. There is a small spot of water collapse. It changes from brownish yellow to black. After the occurrence, it is sprayed with carbendazim or chlorothalonil 800 times. Leaves, once every 7 to 10 days. 3 pest control, insecticidal: use quail 2000 times liquid, spray 7 to 10 days. Insect pests such as Lancome and scale insects were found and promptly brushed to remove diseased leaves to protect the normal growth of the plants.

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