The technology is to select water-saving and drought-resistant varieties, appropriate late sowing, increase basic seedlings, planting of enough planthoppers, increase application of phosphate fertilizers, and re-application of base fertilizers and other techniques to adjust soil water storage at the bottom of dredging, reduce the number of irrigation and irrigation, and improve High-yield cultivation techniques for water use efficiency. It is applicable to winter wheat fields in Huanghuai and northern winter wheat areas, including wheat fields in north-central Henan, most of Shandong and Hebei, and relatively scarce water resources such as Shanxi, Shaanxi and Ningxia, Inner Mongolia Hetao irrigation areas.
Water conservancy is the lifeblood of agriculture. With irrigation conditions, high wheat yield is guaranteed. However, due to the negative effects of human activities and the global drought, the water resources in our city are still depleted and increasingly dry. Most of the wheat fields rely on over-exploitation of groundwater to support the status quo, and the groundwater level is continuously decreasing. Wheat production is not high, no production is not feasible, no water conservation is not feasible, and the integration of water saving and high production is imperative and of great significance. To this end, it is necessary to find out the best way to combine water saving and high yield in wheat by changing cultivation techniques.
1. Analysis on the High-yield Cultivation Mode and Benefit of Wheat Water Saving
In view of the contradiction between insufficient water resources and high crop yields, we have conducted experiments: postponing the spring and the water, reducing the frequency of watering in the spring 1-2 times, and saving water and reducing consumption to achieve the purpose of water saving and high yield in wheat. Successfully achieved the three-unified water-saving, high-yield, high-resource efficiency, has obvious role in mitigating water shortages.
Last year, the city arranged 50,000 mu of water-saving wheat demonstration fields. According to the city's fertility base and production level, the water-saving wheat was arranged in a land plot with good soil fertility. Under the influence of many unfavorable factors, it still achieved certain results. According to statistics, the average number of acres of wheat in the water-saving demonstration area is 455,000, the number of grains per spike is 31.6, the grain weight is 34.5 grams, the average yield per mu is 421.6 kilograms, which is 6.1 kilograms lower than the control per mu. The average water-saving per mu is 45 square meters, and the per-mu net increase profit is 6.7 Yuan (14 yuan for electricity + 2 yuan for labor - 3.2 yuan per mu for seed increase - 6.1 yuan per mu).
Second, the theoretical basis of wheat water-saving irrigation
1. Physiological basis of wheat water-saving irrigation
From the analysis of wheat water consumption rules, the feasibility of wheat water-saving irrigation was determined. The water consumption of wheat in different growth stages is different. The general trend is that there are few seedlings, which increase gradually after the jointing stage, and it is the critical period of wheat water requirement during the booting period, and reaches the highest peak at the heading and flowering stage, and then gradually decreases after grouting. The total wheat consumption during the whole wheat growth period is about 500 millimeters, and the water consumption per mu is 330 cubic meters. The water consumption from sowing to wintering is about 1.5-2 mm, and the water consumption accounts for about 14% of the entire growth period; the water consumption during wintering and drawing festival is only 0.3 mm, of which the water consumption during the wintering period accounts for about 5% of the entire growth period. The trough of water. The water consumption from green to jointing period accounts for 12% of the entire growth period. That is, from the time of sowing to the jointing period of nearly 5 and a half months, the water consumption only accounts for about one third of the total water consumption; from jointing to flowering and maturation, during this period, due to the increase in temperature and the expansion of the leaf area, the wheat water demand has increased dramatically. The daily water consumption is 6-7mm, and its water consumption accounts for more than 65% of the total growth period. Among them, jointing takes about 31% from heading, heading to blossom takes about 4%, and flowering to maturity accounts for about 33%. Therefore, it is entirely feasible to adopt water-saving technical measures as long as the emergence of seedlings is sufficient for wintering and jointing to maturity.
2. Ecological basis of wheat water-saving irrigation
The source of wheat water consumption analysis has three aspects: First, the soil water storage, the second is natural precipitation, the third is artificial water. About 330 cubic meters of water are consumed during the whole wheat growth period, and about 20 cubic meters of water can be added to the soil before sowing. The natural rainfall during the whole growing season is about 35 cubic meters, and it is necessary to manually supplement about 280 cubic meters. According to me, According to the analysis of natural precipitation in high-yielding wheat areas in the city, the water consumption per year before sowing is 53 cubic meters, and the difference is 29 cubic meters. Before winter, as long as the water is kept, it will be able to meet the winter water demand.
3, the best number of watering wheat spring and optimize the watering time
According to the above wheat water requirement law and the basic situation of our city, we have formulated the principle of â€œforefoot, middle control, and post-guaranteedâ€ irrigation. The front foot is at the end of the foot and the central control is overwinter until the start of the period to be controlled. The seedling system should delay the spring. In one water period, the number of watering in spring is reduced, and the post-guarantee guarantees the moisture supply in the later growth period of wheat. In recent years, we have postponed spring and spring water until the end of March and early April. Three springs of wheat are poured in spring, the first water is implemented in late March and early April, the second water is implemented in late April, and the third water is in early May. Implementation. That is, the first water is implemented at the beginning of jointing at the end of the joint, the second water is implemented at the later stage of the jointing, and the third water is implemented at the heading and flowering stage. Or it is water-saving, booting water and grouting water, which saves 1-2 water.
4. Matching technology of wheat water-saving irrigation
1, choose water-saving, high-yielding varieties
The selection of good varieties with early maturity, drought tolerance and strong drought resistance is a key measure for promoting water-saving irrigation. In recent years, the city has mainly adopted water-saving improved varieties 4185 and 8901 with the advantages of disease resistance and high yield.
2. Apply base fertilizer
Bottom fattening is the material basis for achieving high yields and stable production of wheat. On the basis of advocating the return of all straw, 4.5 kg of pure nitrogen, 15 kg of phosphorus pentoxide, and 9 kg of potassium oxide were used in the Mushi.
3, fine soil preparation, adequate planting
The key period of wheat water-saving irrigation is spring, and winter is the foundation. Therefore, a series of measures must be taken before the winter to cultivate strong seedlings. The first step is to plant enough water, fine soil preparation, and deep turning, to prevent air leakage from the corn stalks returning to the field, ensure the planting of seeds, and strictly control the seeding quality. It is consistent with sowing and deep sowing, uniform seeding, guarantee Miao Qi and Miao Zhuang.
4, increase the basic seedlings
Compared with conventional irrigation, the basic seedlings should be appropriately increased in water-saving wheat to compensate for the adverse effect of water deficit on the number of panicles before the jointing. The basic wheat seedlings planted in due time will be guaranteed at about 180,000 yuan and will be planted for 10,000 seedlings every night.
5, increase nitrogen fertilizer
The data show that wheat has 191 irrigations, 15 kg of nitrogen, 161 irrigations, and 24 kg of nitrogen. The wheat yield obtained is basically the same (500 kg), and water can be saved by 30. That is, the fertilization has a substitution effect on water, and the low irrigation amount and the high fertilization amount can obtain the corresponding yield. Therefore, it is recommended to appropriately increase the amount of nitrogen applied and reduce the amount of irrigation water to obtain the corresponding output without using nitrate nitrogen.
6, postponed the spring and water, timely planning
Early spring planning is the key measure to promote early-onset seedling growth and promote root-early development. According to the climate characteristics, it is necessary to postpone the spring and water in accordance with local conditions. In general, the spring and spring water will be carried out at the beginning of the jointing season. The amount of watering will be about 50 square meters, and the combination of water-recovered acres of chase ammonium bicarbonate 50-75 kg or urea 24-36 kg will satisfy the growth of wheat. Needs, but also control the invalid childbirth, promote polarization, reduce nutrient consumption.
7, timely pouring good booting water and flower filling water
For the spring drought, windy, large transpiration characteristics, most wheat fields are prone to drought, and the booting period is the "critical period" of the water, so it should be poured in late April, and combined with watering water and urea 5 kg. The grain filling stage of wheat is a period of wheat grain formation, and the water requirement is urgent. The lack of water causes the grain to degenerate and the number of grains per spike is reduced. Therefore, it is necessary to timely pour the flowers and grouting water, but the amount of water should not be too large. In the past two years, one-third of the city's wheat fields have averaged 3 to 4 waters during the whole growing period, 1% less water than conventional irrigation, and averaged 45 square kilometers of water saving, saving 6 to 7 yuan, and they have â€œbottom feet, Under the principle of â€œcontrol and post-guaranteeâ€, the demand of wheat for water was ensured, and the purpose of saving water and high yield of wheat was basically achieved.
8, do a good job in the late "one spray comprehensive defense"
In mid-to-late May, water-saving wheat fields were all sprayed with insecticides, fungicides, and leaf fertilizers. The effect was very good. It not only treated diseases and insect pests, but also extended the function of green leaves, increased the grain weight of wheat, and ensured the harvest of wheat.
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