Black Gem and Lee Cultivation Technique

Black gems and plums are late-maturing varieties, with a large fruit, an average fruit weight of about 90 grams, and a maximum fruit weight of 296 grams. The appearance of the fruit is purple-black, and the flesh is hard, crisp and sweet. The fruit is resistant to storage and transport, can be stored at room temperature around January, 0-5 degrees can be stored for 3-5 months. The Lunan area began to sprout in late March and bloomed in early April. The mature period lasted from the end of August to the beginning of September, and the fruit growth period was 140 days. The fruit set rate is high and there is no phenomenon of size or year. Cold resistance, flowering ability -3 °C low temperature. High yield and good economic returns.
First, the construction of the main points:
1. Garden selection: When setting up a flatland, choose a land with relatively flat terrain, deep fertile soil, good drainage and irrigation conditions, and a loamy or sandy soil block with a low groundwater level. When the mountainous area is built, to avoid frost invasion, select The leeward sunny slopes.
2. Planting Density: The requirements of black gems and plums are not as strict as those of peaches, and the air humidity requirements are relatively high. Therefore, it can be properly planted when constructing a garden. In general, fertile soil can be used as a 34-meter or 35-meter row in a flat garden, and a 23-meter or 24-meter row spacing can be used in a slimy mountain or sandy area. Planned dense planting can also be used.
3. Pollination tree configuration: Most of Lee's self-cultivation is poor or self-fruiting, and pollinating trees must be configured. Even if self-contained varieties are used, allocation of pollination trees can improve the fruit setting rate. Black gems can be equipped with large stones as early as the powder tree.
Second, soil fertilizer management in the fall, base fertilizer should be applied early (in September as well).
The application rate is generally 20 kg/sapling for young trees and 50-80 kg/strain for mature trees. Some P and K fertilizers or straws that are not matured can be applied at the same time. Top dressing should be placed in 3 periods. Before the spring sprouts, each cultivating 0.2-0.5 kg of urea per plant; after flowering, each compound chase 0.5 yuan of compound fertilizer; the rapid expansion of fruit, the application of multiple compound fertilizer 0.25-0.5 kg. At the same time, the leaves were sprayed once every 20 days from flowering to fruit ripening. Spray 0.3-0.5% urea in the early stage and spray 0.3-0.5% potassium dihydrogen phosphate 2-3 times in the later period. At the same time, Li Shu is not tolerant, so Li Yuan should build a drainage system to avoid damage.
Third, shaping pruning
1, shaping the main branch of many happy shape: the height of 60-70 cm, the first layer of 3 main branches, the second layer of 2 main branches, the interval between layers of 80 cm, the main branch angle is about 60, a layer of the main Each branch on the branch was equipped with 2-3 side branches, and on the main branch of the second floor, there were 1-2 side branches per main branch.
Naturally happy shape: The height of dryness is about 70cm. There is no central leadership, and there are 3-4 main branches. The opening angle is about 50 degrees and the side branch angle is 70-80 degrees. The main lateral branches are cultured with various types of branches.
2. Pruning the pruning of the saplings. After artificially opening the main branch, the internal peal often sprouts. The pruning should be strengthened in summer, and the dense shoots, toppings, and thinning branches should be eliminated to prevent canopy closure. to cultivate.
The extension branch must not be short-circuited. It can be put back for 1-2 years and then regenerated at the regeneration site in 2-3 years. The crown can no longer be expanded. The flower buds of plums are easy to form and the amount of flowers is too much. . The pruning of full fruit period is large enough for the backbone branches, and the method of replacing the head with the branches is used to control the size of the tree and adjust the angle of the apex. The peripheral branches of the upper and lower backbone branches should be combined with sparse, loose, indented, ie sparse, sparse, and vigorous; the remaining branches should not be cut off, and the branches should be shrunk at the appropriate branches next year; The pruning can be cultivated by putting the retraction method first. If the space is large, the development branches can be cut short and the large and medium-sized branch groups can be cultivated. The long fruiting branches and middle fruiting branches should be appropriately short-cut; the short fruiting branches and the bouquet-like fruiting branches can be dense, and need not be short cut. The strong Wangzhi group should go strong and weak, and the weak branches should take the lead; the Zhongyong branch group should be weak and stay strong, and stay old to stay new; and it should be scheduled to retreat and rejuvenate in batches to control its density and length; In addition to retraction, branches can also be sparsed from short fruit branches or fruit-like fruit branches with weak results.
Fourth, flower and fruit management 1, flowering bees: (1 mu put 4 to 8 boxes) or artificially assisted pollination, can increase the rate of fruit set. 2. Spraying boron during flowering period: spraying 0.2~0.3% borax at full bloom can increase the fruit setting rate.
3. Thinning and thinning fruit: Generally, one fruit and fruit branch can leave 1-2 fruit, short fruit branch can leave 2-4 fruit, long fruit branch can leave 4-6 fruit. The crown tip does not stay or stay. The middle and lower parts can be properly left.
V. Prevention and Control of Diseases and Pests Bacterial perforation, Lishi bee, and red spider are the main targets for prevention and control.

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