Pleurotus eryngii is a low-temperature type saprophytic bacterium, sometimes having parasitic properties. It is actually a saprophytic and parasitic fungus.
In 1983, Cao Yuqing, from the Chinese Institute of Biological Deserts in Xinjiang, collected and domesticated and cultivated the wild Pleurotus ostreatus, and began commercial large-scale cultivation in 1992. The cultivation in Tianjin began in 1998, and since 2001, The cultivation of edible fungus bases in Xiantou Ridge in Jixian County, Tianjin.
Pleurotus eryngii is a large-scale fungus that combines both food and medicine. Its mushroom-shaped color is pure white, its meat is delicate, its taste is like abalone, its cooking is not bad, its texture is delicate, and its taste is excellent. Its lysine and arginine are 3-4 times higher than the world-famous mushroom, and it is a high-quality health food.
Pleurotus eryngii is very suitable for cultivation in North China and has been cultivated for 4 years in Shutouling, Gifu County. Its quality is far superior to other regions. In the major Bailing market, Pixian has better quality than Bailing Mushroom in other regions. The price is more than two yuan per kilogram in other regions. The price of the Bailing mushroom has stabilized at between 10 and 12 yuan/kg in the past few years. The income of growers is 5 to 6 times that of other vegetable growing sheds and 2 to 3 times of profits. In the early stage of product development, some high-end restaurants such as Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Shanghai, and Hong Kong are mainly used as treasures and delicacies. Favor, with the improvement of people's living standards, health awareness and the deepening understanding of the bacteria food, the market demand has been expanding, has now developed to major supermarkets, Beijing, Tianjin, Tangshan and other regions have a lot of demand. The international market has broad prospects for development. In recent years, the price will not be low, which is a very good way for farmers in Ganxian County to become rich.
There are many kinds of Pleurotus ostreatus mushrooming sites. There are greenhouses for greenhouses, ordinary houses, basement rooms, caves or warehouses with pumping and ventilation facilities. However, no matter which form you take, you must have good insulation, moisturizing, and ventilation. Performance. In Gifu Prefecture, greenhouses are mainly used for cultivation.
Pleurotus eryngii is generally built into a greenhouse of 60 to 80 meters in length and 8 to 9 meters in width. Select a site with good terrain, complete water supply and power supply, and convenient transportation.
First, the development conditions of Pleurotus ostreatus requirements Nutritional requirements of Pleurotus nebrodensis is not harsh, all hardwood tree sawdust, cottonseed husk, corn heart can be cultivated, nitrogen fertilizer is mainly wheat bran, fresh corn flour. The ratio of carbon to nitrogen in the production phase of Pleurotus nebrodensis was 25:1 to 40:1; the ratio of carbon to nitrogen in the reproductive phase was 70:1 to 200:1. Mineral elements can be added lime, gypsum and phosphate fertilizers. In the prefecture of Gifu Prefecture, the mother and the original species are generally produced from May to June. In July, cultivars are produced. In August, mushrooms are produced. In November, the mushrooms are produced in April. The general biological efficiency is 40% to 60%. The second tidal mushroom is rare and the mushroom shape is also poor. However, the bio-efficiency of the cultivation of the fungus bark covers 80% to 90%. Although the mushroom grows large, its quality is poor.
Temperature requirements Pleurotus is a low-temperature type mushroom, the mycelial growth temperature is 5 Â°C to 32 Â°C. The most suitable temperature 22 Â°C to 25 Â°C, 5 Â°C growth is slow, the hyphae stop growing at 35 Â°C to 37 Â°C. The mycelium maturation requires 30 to 45 days to achieve physiological maturity, generally controlled between -3Â°C and 15Â°C, and the most suitable temperature is 7Â°C to 12Â°C. The fruit body can be differentiated, and the mushrooming temperature is 3 Â°C to 22 Â°C, the optimum temperature is 13 Â°C to 18 Â°C. It took about 110 to 130 days from the production of mushroom rods. From 8 to 15 days from harvesting buds to harvesting, the mushrooming time is from late November to March of the following year.
The water requirement for the cultivation of material and water ratio is 1:1 to 1:1.3, the moisture content of the culture material is 65%, and the relative humidity of the air for growth and development of the Bailing mushroom is 85% to 90%. . At low temperatures of 6Â°C to 7Â°C, cracks in the cap often occur when the air humidity is too low. Pleurotus ostreatus has a small water content and can be maintained for 14 days or less at 15Â°C or less after picking.
The requirement of light The dark culture of Pleurotus nebrodensis in the germination stage can grow normally. However, the growth and development stage of the mushroom body requires some scattered light. Under completely dark conditions, the fruiting bodies are difficult to differentiate, and fruiting bodies are not easily formed under strong light. Generally, the light is 800 to 1500 lux and the light time is 12 to 14 hours per day. There are certain differences in the light requirements of different species. Some need strong light, and some require low light, but production practices show that: in the case of weak light, mushroom body malformation often occurs, the stipe is slender, and the cap is too small. In the cold winter, even direct sunlight has little effect on the appearance and the color and quality of the mushroom.
Oxygen requirement Bailing mushroom is an aerobic fungus, and the growth and development of mycelium and fruit body requires fresh air. It is necessary to ventilate and breathe frequently. The concentration of carbon dioxide reaches more than 0.4%. Occur, development is blocked, easy to produce abnormal mushroom. From the cultivation experience, the demand for oxygen in the growth stage of Pleurotus ferulae fruit body exceeds that of the common mushroom. Poorly ventilated cultivation environment makes fruit stalk stalks grow, affecting quality. But no matter which production stage, the ventilation must be gentle, mainly the temperature and wind speed are in harmony.
pH Requirements The natural growth environment of Pleurotus nebrodensis is slightly alkaline. The pH value is 7.8. The Pleurotus eryngii mycelium can grow on substrates with a pH of 5 to 11, and the optimum pH is 5.5 to 6.5. Considering the fact that pH value tends to drop to 0.5 point when sterilized by autoclaving in the original cultivation, the pH should be about 7 when compounding. The ingredients of the cultivation bacteria stick are most suitable between 6.5 and 7.5, and the pH of various culture materials can be determined with ordinary pH test paper.
Second, the production of the mother of Pleurotus ostreatus (the first species of production)
Bailing mother must be purchased from the authoritative department and the department with the strain license. Save in the refrigerator after purchase, if you need to expand, the bacteria in the refrigerator to activate 3 to 5 days in advance to spare, will be 200 grams of high quality mildew-free cotton seed shell, and take the peeled potato cut into diamond kumquat size, put Into the cold water basin spare, with stainless steel pot and 200 ml of tap water (pH 7 to 7.5) cook, when boiled time 30 minutes, the cotton seed hull and 200 grams of potato dipping liquid double gauze filter, extract the filtrate 1000 ml, in More than 45Â°C, hot-separated into 100 to 180 sticks of 18018 mm rigid test tubes. About 8 to 9 ml of each solution is contained in a test tube. The tampon is plugged and the test tube mouth is sealed with hard kraft paper or plastic film. 5 To 7 sticks. When sterilizing, add enough water (pH 7 to 7.5) 3 kg with a sterilizer and turn on the power to warm it up. Put the filled tube into the retort barrel and cover it with a lid. Bolt, open the air release valve When the water vapor overflows, cover the air release valve. When the air pressure reaches 0.5 atmosphere, open the air release valve and let it cool down. Continue heating when the pressure in the boiler reaches 0. When the pressure in the boiler reaches 1 to At atmospheric pressure, hold for 20 to 30 minutes and turn off the power. When the pressure in the pot drops to 0, open the lid to remove the culture tube, gently turn or oscillate the tube to prevent condensed water from collecting in the tube, and put the tube into a slant, so that the length of the slope of the culture medium is the total length of the tube. One-half or so. Each purchased mother can transfer 30 to 60 tubes, and can be inoculated in an ordinary inoculation box after cooling. After the bacteria sterilizers are completely sterilized, they can be inoculated little by little in the medium or can be inoculated at multiple points. However, in general, the inoculation points are placed in the middle of the slope of the culture medium. After inoculation, the dark culture is carried out at 25Â°C for about 20 to 24 hours. The mushroom mycelium begins to germinate, requiring 8 to 10 days for the entire culture period. After the mycelium is over the test tube, it is selected to be non-polluting and grow robust as a productive mother-bearing species, with bacteria and dysplasia removed.
The female parent that has been transferred from one generation to another becomes the second generation parent, and is used directly for the parent species of the original parent, known as the mother of production. Production practice shows that: multiple transfer and expansion cultures will degrade strains, and the transfer of production mothers cannot exceed five generations.
Third, the production of the original species (two species of production)
The original medium formulation:
(1) Pure cottonseed hulls and water are mixed by 1:1.2 and the moisture content is 65%.
(2) 100 kg of cottonseed hull, 1 kg of quick lime, 1 kg of gypsum, 0.1 kg of 50% carbendazim, 1:1.2 of feed water, and 65% of water.
(3) 100 kg of wheat grain, 1 kg of calcium phosphate, 1 kg of quick lime, and 1 kg of brown sugar. After the wheat grain is soaked for 10 to 12 hours, it is cooked and dried to add auxiliary materials.
According to the required number of original species, prepare the original species bottle, install any of the above culture materials, and move the bottle containing the original species into the inoculation box. After the inoculation box is completely sterilized, the inoculation is performed and each tube can be connected to the original. 5 to 6 bottles, the inoculation personnel wiped their hands with 75% alcohol, then ignited the alcohol lamp, sealed the mouth of the mother tube with a flame, and placed the mother tube in an aseptic condition with an inoculum knife. The bacteria in the mother test tube is cut into 4 to 6 pieces. Then, above the alcohol lamp, the original bottle tampon is opened, the culture medium in the test tube is placed in the original bottle, and the original bottle is tightly sealed with a plastic film. , Put it into the autoclave and heat it up to 0.5 atmospheres. When the air pressure rises to 1.5 atmospheres, it starts timing and stops heating. When it drops to 1.2 atmospheres, it continues to heat and maintains 1.2 to 1.5 atmospheres. After an hour of autoclaving, the original species was sterilized and selected in a ventilated, cool, dry and dark place. In order to germinate the mother seed as soon as possible, the first two days were controlled at about 26Â°C, and the third day was reduced to 24Â°C to 25Â°C, thereafter maintained at 22 Preferably to 23 â„ƒ.
IV. Production of cultivars (production of three species)
Cultivated species: (1) 80% cotton seed hull, 10% wood chips, 8% rice bran, 1% brown sugar, 8% calcium carbonate, pH 7, water content 65%. (2) 98% wheat, 1% quick lime, 1% gypsum, and 50% water content.
Cultivation of cultivars: Generally, high-pressure plastic cylinders of 17-2041-45 cm in thickness and 0.04 mm in thickness are used. It can hold about 600 to 700 grams of dry material. The cultivation bag is packed with the raw materials of the above formula, sterilized, and 3500 to 4000 seed bags can be sterilized in a standard sterilized iron basket at one time. After the inoculation box is sterilized, the inoculation is carried out at about 37Â°C under aseptic conditions. It is better to inoculate a larger amount. After gently pulverizing the original seed pieces, they are attached to both ends of the fungus bag and the bags are tied. After inoculation, 1 to Keep the temperature at 26Â°C for 2 days, the temperature can't exceed 30Â°C, maintain the condition at 20Â°C to 27Â°C, the mycelium grows more quickly, about 20 to 25 days, the mycelium grows in the bag, and it can be used as cultivar of mushroom .
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